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THE

MAMMALS OF AUSTRALIA.

BY

JOHN GOULD, ERS.

ELS, FZS., MES., FR.GEOG.S., MRAY S.: HON. MEMB. OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF TURIN; OF THE ROYAL ZOOL, SOC. OF IRELAND; OF THE PENZANCE NAT. HIST. SOC.; OF THE WORCESTER NAT. HIST. SOC.; OF THE NORTHUMBERLAND, DURHAM, AND NEWCASTLE NAT. HIST. SOC.; OF THE NAT. HIST. SOC.

OF DARMSTADT; OF THE TASMANIAN SOC. OF VAN DIEMEN’S LAND; OF THE NAT.

HIST. SOC. OF STRASBOURG; OF THE NAT. HIST. SUC. OF IPSWICH; AND CORR. MEMB. SOC. OF NAT. HIST. OF WURTEMBERG.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 26 CHARLOTTE STREET, BEDFORD SQUARE.

1863.

LIST

Hapalotis albipes = FIG hemileucura hirsutus penicillata . conditor murinus > 1oneicauaata —— Mitchell . cervinus Mus fuscipes vellerosus . longipilis cervinipes . assimilis manicatus . sordidus lineolatus . ———— Gouldi nanus albocinereus Novee Hollandiz delicatulus Hydromys chrysogaster . fulvolavatus leucogaster a oIMOSsus Pteropus poliocephalus conspicillatus funereus Molossus Australis . Taphozous Australis Rhinolophus megaphyllus cervinus aurantius . Nyctophilus Geoffroyi* =a CCONTOVN.. unicolor Timoriensis Scotophilus Gouldi . - morio microdon . picatus nigrogriseus eee lev pumilus Vespertilio macropus Tasmaniensis Arctocephalus lobatus

Stenorhynchus leptonyx .

Canis dingo

OF PLATES.

VOL. III.

White-footed Hapalotis White-tipped Hapalotis Elsey’s Hapalotis Long-haired Hapalotis Pencil-tailed Hapalotis Building Hapalotis

Murine Hapalotis Long-tailed Hapalotis Mitchell’s Hapalotis . Fawn-coloured Hapalotis Dusky-footed Rat

Tawny Rat

Long-haired Rat Buff-footed Rat .

Allied Rat .

White-footed Rat

Sordid Rat

Plain Rat . : White-footed Mouse . Little Rat . ; Greyish-white Mouse

New Holland Field-Mouse . Delicate-coloured Mouse Golden-bellied Beaver-Rat . Fulvous Beaver-Rat . White-bellied Beaver-Rat . Sooty Beaver-Rat Grey-headed Vampire Spectacled Vampire Funereal Vampire Australian Molossus . Australian Taphozous Great-leaved Horse-shoe Bat Fawn-coloured Bat

Orange Horse-shoe Bat Geoffroy’s Nyctophilus Geoffroy’s Nyctophilus Tasmanian Nyctophilus Western Nyctophilus . Gould’s Bat

Chocolate Bat

Small-footed Bat

Pied Scotophilus 4 Blackish-grey Scotophilus . Grey’s Scotophilus

Little Bat .

Great-footed Bat Tasmanian Bat .

Cowled Seal

Sea Leopard

The Dingo

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HAPALOTIS ALBIPES, Licac. White-footed Hapalotis.

Hapalotis albipes, Licht. Darst. der Saugth., tab. 29.—Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. ii. p. 308.—/d., List of Mamm. in Coll. Brit. Mus., p. 115.—Gould in Proce. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 126.

Conilurus Constructor, Ogilb. Trans. Linn. Soc., vol. xviii. p. 126.

Bar-roo, Aborigines of the Darling Downs, New South Wales.

The Rabbit Rat of the Colonists, Benn. Cat: of Australian Museum, Sydney, p. 6. no. 30.

Tue native habitat of the Hapalotzs albipes is the south-eastern portions of Australia generally ; it is dispersed over all parts of New South Wales, Port Philip and South Australia, but is nowhere very abundant. The South Australian specimens and those of New South Wales assimilate very closely, while those from the Darling Downs district are rather browner in the colouring of the fur and have shorter hind feet. Although I regard this latter animal from the table lands as only a local variety, it may at some future time prove to be distinct.

Judging from my own observations I should say that the Hapalotis albipes is strictly nocturnal in its habits, for it sleeps during the day in the hollow limbs of prostrate trees, or such hollow branches of the large Eucalyptt as are near the ground, in which situations it may be found curled up in a warm nest of dried leaves ; more than once have I, after detecting the animal in its retreat, sawn off the hollow limb and secured it without injury. In a note with specimens from Darling Downs in New South Wales, Mr. Gilbert states that ‘it is generally found inhabiting hollow logs or holes in standing trees.”

The following note respecting this species was sent to me by my kind friend His Excellency Sir George Grey, now Governor of New Zealand, during his Governorship of the Colony of South Australia :—

“This animal lives among the trees. The specimen I send you, a female, had three young ones attached to its teats when it was caught: the mother has no pouch, but the young attach themselves with the same or even greater tenacity than is observable in the young of the Marsupiata. While life remained in the mother they remained attached to her teats by their mouths, and grasped her body with their claws, thereby causing her to present the appearance of a Marsupial minus the pouch. On pulling the young from the teats of the dead mother, they seized hold of my glove with the mouth and held on so strongly that it was difficult to disengage them.”

I had frequent opportunities of observing this animal in a state of nature during my rambles in the interior of Australia, and Mr. Gilbert was equally fortunate during his short sojourn in New South Wales. I mention this, because certain habits and nest-making propensities have been referred to this animal by Sir Thomas Mitchell, W. Ogilby, Esq., and others, which belong not to this species, but to the Hapalotis conditor, a fact which is fully established by the drawings, specimens and notes of that species made on the spot and com- municated to me by Captain Sturt.

Fur long, close and soft ; head, ears, upper surface, flanks and outer surface of the limbs grey at the base and ashy brown on the surface, interspersed with numerous fine black-tipped hairs; whiskers and a narrow line around the eye black ; under surface of the body, inner surface of the limbs, bands and upper surface of the feet white; upper surface of the tail dark brown; sides and under surface white.

The figures are of the size of life.

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HAPALOTIS APICALIS, Gow. White-tipped Hapalotis.

Hapalotis apicalis, Gould, in Proc of Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 126.

Tuis new species is about the size of, and similar in colour to, HZ. albipes, but it differs in having larger ears, much more delicately formed feet, the tail nearly destitute of the long brushy hairs towards the tip, and smaller eyes.

I possess a single example only of this species ; it was procured by Mr. Strange in South Australia. There is an animal in spirits in the British Museum, presented by R. C. Gunn, Esq., from Van Diemen’s Land, which accords very closely with it in the colouring of the fur, and in the rat-like form of the tail ; it is, however, of much smaller size, and in all probability will prove to be a new species.

Face and sides of the neck blue-grey ; upper part of the head, space between the ears, the ears and upper parts of the body pale brown, interspersed with numerous fine black hairs ; under surface white; flanks mingled grey and buffy white ; fore feet white, with an oblique mark of dark brown separating the white from the greyish brown of the upper surface ; hinder tarsi and feet white; basal three-fourths of the tail brown, apical fourth thinly clothed with white hairs.

The figures are the size of life.

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HAPALOTIS HEMILEUCURA, Gray.

Elsey’s Hapalotis.

Hapalotis hemileucura, Gray in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part xxv. p. 243.

Ir is with a degree of mixed pleasure and regret that I bring before the notice of the scientific world this new species of Hapalotis. It was brought home by that young and intelligent naturalist, the late Mr. J. R. Elsey, Surgeon to the expedition conducted by A. C. Gregory, Esq., from the north-western coast of Australia to Moreton Bay : all who like myself had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the amiable qualities of this gentleman, cannot but regret the loss the science of natural history has sustained by his premature decease. On the part of Dr. Gray, I brought this animal before the Meeting of the Zoological Society held on the 24th of November, 1857, and gave it the name of hemileucura, a term suggested by the parti-colouring of the tail. Only a single specimen was procured, and this is now in the British Museum. I am unable to state the precise locality in which it was obtained, but believe it was about midway between the Gulf of Carpentaria and Moreton Bay.

The Hapalotis hemileucurus is a harsh wiry-furred animal, nearly allied to, but considerably larger than, the H. melanura, from which it also differs in having the apical half of the tail white.

Head, all the upper surface and flanks very light sandy brown, with numerous, but thinly placed, fine, long black hairs ; under surface buffy white, with even lighter feet and fore-arms ; tail brown, deepening into black about the middle, beyond which the apical portion is white, the white hairs being prolonged into a small tuft at the tip.

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The figures are of the natural size.

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HAPALOTIS HIRSUTUS, Gow. Long-haired Hapalotis.

Mus hirsutus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part x. p. 12.—Ib. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. x. p. 405. Hapalotis hirsutus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part xix. p. 127.

Tue discovery of this rare Australian animal is due to the researches of the late Mr. Gilbert, who obtained a single specimen during his sojourn at Port Essington on the Cobourg Peninsula in 1840; since that period a second example from the same locality has been sent to this country, and, as well as the former, deposited in the British Museum. It will be seen, by the synonyms above given, that I at first regarded this animal as a true Mus, and that I subsequently assigned it a place in the genus Hapalotis. I am, however, by no means satisfied that this is its right situation, and think it possible that, when a sufficient number of specimens have been received to justify the formation of a correct opinion upon the subject, it may be found desirable to constitute it the type of a new genus.

The following is a copy of my original description of the animal, published in the 10th Part of the Pro- ceedings of the Zoological Society of London :-—

“Fur coarse and shaggy; on the upper parts of the body the shorter hairs are of a yellowish-brown colour, but the longer interspersed hairs, being numerous and of a black colour, give a deep general tint to those parts; the under parts of the body are of a rusty-yellow colour, tinted with brownish on the neck and chest, and having a more decided rust-colour on the abdomen; tail well clothed with lengthened hairs, especially on the apical half, where the scales are hidden by them; those at the point of the tail measure upwards of an inch in length; on this part they have a rusty hue, but on the remaining portions they are black.”

The Plate represents the animal of the natural size.

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HAPALOTIS PENICILLATA, Gow. Pencil-tailed Hapalotis.

Mus penicillatus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part X. p. 12.—Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. x. p. 405.—List of Mamm. in Brit. Mus., p. 109. Hapalotis melanura, List of Mamm. in Brit. Mus., p. 115. ?

Turis animal was procured by Mr. Gilbert during his short sojourn at Port Essington on the Cobourg Peninsula in Northern Australia, in which part of the country it was also obtained by Mr. MacGillivray and sent by him to the late Earl of Derby; specimens from the same country are also contained in the collection at the British Museum.

It is in every respect a true Hapalotis, and may be readily distinguished from the other members of the genus by the blackness of its tail, the hairs of which are much lengthened; and by the rigid, almost spiny, nature of the hairs clothing the back. Its habits would seem to be somewhat singular, inasmuch as it is frequently found among the swamps on the sea-shore; I have no evidence, however, that it is not also found in the interior of the country. I find the following note respecting it among the papers of the late Mr. Gilbert :— ;

‘This little animal is only seen on the beach where there are large Caswarina trees, in the dead hollow branches of which it forms a nest of fine dry grass, and retires during the day; in the evening it leaves its retreat and proceeds to the beach, where it may be seen running along at the edge of the surf as it rolls up and recedes, apparently feeding upon any animal matter washed up by the waves.”

The fur of the upper surface is greyish brown grizzled with buff, with a rusty tint on the region of the occiput and back of the neck; around the angle of the mouth, the chin, throat, and all the under parts of the body, as well as the feet and inner side of the legs, are white with a faint yellow tint or cream-coloured, and the hair of these parts is of a uniform tint to the roots except on the chest, where they are grey next the skin: the tail is sparingly clothed at the base with minute bristly hairs; but about the middle the hairs become of a black colour and longer, and towards the apex attain a considerable length, measuring at and near the tip half an inch or more: the ears are sparingly clothed with minute hairs.

The figures represent the two sexes of the size of life.

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HAPALOTIS CONDITOR, Gouid.

Building Hapalotis.

Mus conditor, Gould in Sturt’s Narr. of Exp. to Central Australia, vol. i. pl. in p. 120; vol. 11. App. p. 7.

For a knowledge of this curious little animal, we are indebted to the researches of Captain Sturt, who, during his recent expedition into the central portion of Australia, found it inhabiting the brushes of the Darling ; there is little doubt that it had been previously met with by Major Mitchell, who, in the second volume of his “‘ Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,” page 263, when speaking of the specimens collected during the journey, mentions, among others, the flat-tailed rat from the scrubs of the Darling, where it builds an enormous nest of branches and boughs, so interlaced as to be proof against any attacks of the native dog;” but as the specimen he procured appears never to have been described, the credit of its first introduction to science is due to the first-mentioned traveller.

In its general form and dentition it is very nearly allied to the members of the genus Mus, but its lengthened and broad hind-feet, large ears, and its habit of constructing a nest, are characters which in an equal degree ally it to the Hapalot:, with which, upon a closer examination of its structure, I am induced now to associate it.

Captain Sturt states that it ‘‘ inhabits the brushes of the Darling, but was not found beyond latitude 30°. It builds a nest of small sticks varying in length from three to eight inches, and in thickness from that of a quill to that of the thumb, arranged in a most systematic manner so as to form a compact cone like a bee- hive, about four feet in diameter and three feet high; those at the foundation are so disposed as to form a compact flooring, and the entire fabric is so firm as almost to defy destruction except by fire. The animal, which is like an ordinary rat, only that it has longer ears and the hind-feet are disproportioned to the fore- feet, lives in communities, and traverses the mound by means of passages leading into the apartments in the centre. One of these nests or mounds had five holes or entrances at the base, nearly equidistant from each other, with passages leading from them to a hole in the ground beneath, in which I am led to conclude they had their store. There were two nests of grass in the centre, with passages running up to them diagonally from the bottom; the nests were close together, but in separate compartments, with passages commu- nicating from the one to the other.”

Fur soft and silky to the touch; general colour greyish brown, becoming of a darker hue down the centre of the head and back, in consequence of the tips of the hairs being dark brown ; under surface pale buff, the whole of the fur dark slate-grey at the base; a slight wash of rufous between the ears; whiskers very long, exceedingly fine, and of a blackish brown hue; fore-feet brown, hinder feet pale brown; tail brown above, paler beneath.

The figures are of the natural size.

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HAPALOTIS MURINUS, Gow.

Murine Hapalotis.

Hapalotis murinus, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part xiii. a 75, ancy LSobap: 127.

Tue large size of its ears, the peculiar softness of its fur, and the whiteness and length of the hinder feet of this animal induced me some years ago to characterize it under the generic name of Hapalotis rather than that of Mus, and I still adhere to the opinion I then formed, that it must not be associated with the true Rats. The original specimen from which my description was taken was procured by Mr. Gilbert on the plains bordering the rivers Namoi and Gwydyr, where the natives informed him it was very abundant. Mr. Strange subsequently sent me examples from the neighbourhood of Lake Albert in South Australia, which, although of somewhat larger size, are, I believe, identical. He states that he found them in families on the edge of the small dry salt-water lagoons of the plains, and that they did not appear to go far from their habitations.

Fur remarkably soft and delicate, and of a slate-grey tint next the skin; on the upper surface and the sides of the body the exposed portions of the hairs are of a delicate ochreous yellow, with a considerable admixture of black, the points of the hairs being of that colour ; ears tolerably well clothed with small hairs of a white hue, excepting on the fore part of the outer surface, where they assume a dusky greyish tint ; under surface buffy white ; tail moderately clothed with hairs, but not so thickly as to hide the scales; on the upper surface some of these hairs are white and others blackish, on the sides and under surface of the tail they are pure white; whiskers black at the root, greyish at the point ; hands and feet buffy white.

The figures represent the two sexes of the size of life.

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HAPALOTIS LONGICAUDATA, Gouid.

Long-tailed Hapalotis.

Hapalotis longicaudata, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XII. p. 104. Kor-tung and Gool-a-wa, Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Moore’s River in Western Australia.

A.rHouaH very similar in form and style of colouring to the Hapalotis Mitchelli, the larger size and the greater length of its tail are characters by which the present animal may be distinguished from that species.

The interior of Western Australia is the only locality in which the Hapalotis longicaudata has been pro- cured. The individuals forming the subject of the accompanying Plate were obtained in the vicinity of Moore’s River, and now form part of the collection at the British Museum. They were sent to me by Mr. Gilbert, whose notes relative to the present species may not prove uninteresting :—

‘« This species differs considerably in its habits from the Djyr-dow-in (Hapalotis Mitchell), for while that animal burrows in sandy districts, the favourite haunt of the present species is a stiff and clayey soil. It is also very partial to the mounds thrown up by the Boordee’s (Bettongia Grayit) and the Dal-goitch (Pera- galea lagotis). It is less destructive to the sacks and bags of the store-rooms, but, like the HW. Mfitcheliii, is extremely fond of raisins.”

All the upper surface and the outside of the limbs pale sandy, interspersed on the head and over the back with numerous fine black hairs, which becoming longer on the lower part of the back and rump, give that part a dark or brown hue; ears naked and of a dark brown; sides of the muzzle, all the under surface and the inner surface of the limbs white; tail clothed with short dark brown hairs at the base, with lengthened black hairs tipped with white on the apical half of its length, the extreme tip being white; tarsi white ; whiskers very long, fine and black; the fur is close, very soft, and of a dark slaty grey both on the upper and under surface.

The figures represent a male and a female of the natural size.

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HAPALOTIS MITCHELLII. Mitchell’s Hapalotis.

Dipus Mitchel, Ogilby in Linn. Trans., vol. xviii. p. 129.—Mitch. Trav., vol. ii. p. 144. pl. 29.—Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p. 151.

Hapalotis Mitchellu, Gray, App. to Grey’s Trav., vol. ii. p. 404.

Gould, Gray, App. to Grey’s Trav., vol. ii. pp. 404 and 413.

Djyr-dow-in, Aborigines around Perth, and

Mat-tee-getch, Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Moore’s River, Western Australia.

Tur animal here represented was originally described by Mr. Ogilby under the name of Dipus Mitchell, from a drawing by Major Sir Thomas L.: Mitchell of a specimen obtained by him on the banks of the river Murray in South Australia, and now deposited in the Museum at Sydney; since that period specimens have been sent to the Zoological Society of London by the late Mr. J. B. Harvey from South Australia, and to myself by Mr. Gilbert from Western Australia, all of which appear to be identical with the animal discovered by Sir Thomas Mitchell; at least the specimens from Southern and Western Australia have been found on comparison to be precisely similar, and Mr. Gilbert informs me that on examining the Major’s specimen in the Sydney Museum, he could perceive no specific difference between it and those transmitted by himself from Western Australia. That they are identical there can be little doubt, when we take into consideration that Sir Thomas Mitchell’s specimen was procured at no great distance from the locality in which Mr. Harvey obtained his.

The range of this species is very extensive, and it is probable that the greater portion of the interior of the country will hereafter be found to be inhabited by it.

The only information received respecting the habits of this animal is, that in Western Australia it bur- rows in the ground ; taking up its abode on the sides of grassy hills tolerably well-clothed with small trees growing in a light soil. It occasionally makes its way into the stores of the settlers, and commits depre- dations on the provisions, particularly sugar and raisins, of which it is exceedingly fond.

The sexes in size and colour offer no material difference.

All the upper surface and the outside of the limbs very pale sandy, interspersed over the head and back with fine black hairs, which becoming numerous and longer on the lower part of the back and rump, give that part a black or brown hue; ears naked and of a dark brown; sides of the face, all the under surface, inner side of the limbs and feet greyish white ; down the centre of the throat and chest a broad patch of pure silky white; upper surface of the tail dark brown, under surface white, the hairs becoming much lengthened on the upper surface at the tip; whiskers very long, fine and black ; the fur is close, very soft, and of a slaty grey at the base, both on the upper and under surface.

The accompanying Plate represents the animal in three positions, and of the natural size.

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HAPALOTIS CERVINUS, Gowda.

Fawn-coloured Hapalotis.

Hapalotis cervinus, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 127.

Ir the Great Red Kangaroo may be extolled as the finest of the Kangaroos, it must be conceded that the present animal is the most graceful and elegant of the Jerboa-like rodents to which the generic term of Hapalotis has been applied. For its discovery and introduction to this country we are indebted to the researches of Captain Sturt, who has thus afforded another instance of the anxiety with which this intrepid traveller seeks to promote the cause of science, not only in his immediate vocation as a soldier and explorer, but in the department of zoology, a department never neglected by him whenever he has had opportunities of adding to its stores. It was during the most hazardous of his journeys towards the centre of Australia, that Captain Sturt first met with this pretty species. ;

‘On the 20th,” says Captain Sturt, ‘“‘ we found ourselves in lat. 29° 6, and halted on one of those clear patches on which the rain-water lodges, but it had dried up, and there was only a little for our use in a small gutter not far distant. Whilst we were here encamped, a little Jerboa was chased by the dogs into a hole close by the drays, which, with four others, we succeeded in capturing by digging for them. This beautiful little animal burrows in the ground like a mouse, but their habitations have several passages leading straight, like the radii of a circle, to a common centre, to which a shaft is sunk from above, so that there is a complete circulation of air along the whole. We fed our little captives on oats, on which they thrived and became exceedingly tame. They generally huddled together in a corner of their box; but when darting from one side to the other, they hopped on their hind legs, which, like those of the Kangaroo, are much longer than the fore ones, and held the tail perfectly straight and horizontal. At this date they were a novelty to us, but we subsequently saw great numbers of them, and ascertained that the natives frequented the sandy ridges in order to procure them for food. Those we succeeded in capturing were, I am sorry to say, lost from neglect. This species feeds on tender shoots of plants, and must live for many months without water, the situation in which it is found precluding the possibility of its obtaining any for lengthened intervals.”

The whole of the head, upper surface and sides of the body of the most delicate fawn-colour, interspersed with numerous fine black hairs on the head and back; whiskers greyish black; nose and under surface white; tail pale brown, lighter beneath; ears very large, somewhat pointed, and nearly destitute of hairs.

The figures are of the natural size; the darker-coloured figure representing a variety sometimes met with.

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MUS FUSCI PES, Waterh. Dusky-footed Rat.

Mus fuscipes, Waterh. in Darwin’s Zool. of the Voy. of H.M.S. Beagle, Mammalia, p. 66. pl. 25.— Cat. of Mamm. in Brit. Mus., p. 111. —— lutreola, Gray, App. to Grey’s Journ. of Two Exp. of Disc. in Australia, vol. ii. p. 409.

Turs species of Rat is distributed in abundance over the whole of the southern portion of Australia ; but I have no evidence that its range extends to the north coast. Specimens from Swan River in Western Australia, the swamps and thick brushes of New South Wales, the intermediate colony of South Australia, and the islands in Bass’s Straits, differ in no respect from each other. Its favourite haunts are low and humid situations where long grass and herbage abound, and the banks of freshwater brooks and lagoons

Although belonging to a different genus, it presents in its aquatic habits and in many of its actions a striking resemblance to the common Water Vole (Arvicola amphibius) of Europe; like that animal, it swims with the greatest ease, and may be constantly seen crossing and recrossing the small brooks and water- holes so abundant in the localities it frequents. It is rather less than the Mus Rattus in size, but is of a stouter form, and is moreover remarkable for the great length and softness of its fur, and the brown colour of its feet.

The general tint of the upper surface and the sides of the head and body is blackish brown, with an ad- mixture of grey; of the under surface greyish white; the feet are brown, the hairs being greyish at the tip; the tail is black, and but sparingly clothed with short bristly hairs; the ears are rather sparingly clothed with hairs, which are for the most part of a brownish grey colour; the ordinary fur of the back is about three-quarters of an inch in length and very soft, of a deep grey colour broadly annulated with brownish yellow near, and blackish at, the tip; the longer black hairs measure upwards of an inch and a quarter in length; the incisor teeth are orange-coloured.

The figures in the accompanying Plate represent the animal correctly both in size and colour.

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MUS VELLEROSUS, Gray. Tawny Rat.

Mus vellerosus, Gray in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part xv. p. 5.

In the fifteenth part of the “‘ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,” above referred to, will be found the description of a species of Rat, sent from South Australia by His Excellency Governor Grey. This supposed species received from Dr. Gray the name of Mus vellerosus: 1 say supposed species, because I believe it to be a /usus, either of the Mus fuscipes, or some nearly allied species ; still, although entertaming this opinion, I have considered it necessary to give an accurate figure of the animal in the present work, and I must leave it to future zoologists to ascertain if it be or be not a true species. It differs from the Mus fuscipes not only in its tawny colouring, but in the great length of its furry coat, all the hairs of which are of an equal length, or nearly so; it is also very different from the Mus longipilis, with which indeed I am convinced it has no relationship whatever. Only a single example has yet reached this country, and it is on this that Dr. Gray has founded the species, accompanied with the following remark :—

«This rat has the dentition and somewhat the general appearance of Mus fuscipes, Waterh., but the skull and animal are considerably larger, and the fur is very much longer and paler.”

Fur long and rather soft to the touch; general colour reddish brown, varied with whitish interspersed hairs, becoming paler on the sides and still paler beneath, the base of the fur being bluish grey ; feet and tail brown. |

The animal is figured on the accompanying Plate of the natural size.

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MUS LONGIPILIS, Gow.

Long-haired Rat.

I am indebted to the Directors of the Australian Museum at Sydney for permission to figure this remarkable species of Rat, and for the loan of the unique specimen from which my drawing was taken. In size it approximates very closely to the Common Rat of Europe (Adus Rattus), but is at once distinguished from that species by the light buffy hue of its fur, and by the great length of the numerous black hairs interspersed along the back, which latter feature has suggested the specific name of longipihs.

In the brief notes kindly transmitted to me by Mr. William Sheridan Wall, that gentleman informs me that it was killed by his late brother, Mr. Thomas Wall, during his expedition to the Victoria River, on a desert which abounded with these animals. ‘In the absence of vegetation, it was interesting to ascertain, if possible, their means of existence. The stomachs of several were examined with this view, and all were found to contain a fleshy mass, leading to the supposition that they preyed upon each other, for no other animal was found to inhabit the locality.” This mode of feeding was doubtless only temporary, probably caused by the entire absence, at the time, of the seeds and other vegetable substances suitable to its economy. Itis to be regretted that more examples of this new species were not procured, especially as the one I have figured must be returned to the Australian Museum ; examples of so curious a Rat would be very desirable accessions to our national and other collections.

Fur very long, hairy and somewhat harsh to the touch, of a greyish brown at the base, and tawny buff on the surface, numerously interspersed, especially along the back, with very long, fine, black hairs; under surface of the body buffy grey; feet flesh-colour, sparingly clothed with silvery white hairs; tail thinly beset with fine, stiff, black hairs, between which the usual scaly appearance is perceptible.

Total length, from the tip of the nose to the end of the tail, 132 inches ; of the tail, 52 ; of the nose to the ear, 123; of the ear, 2; of the tarsi, 14, inch.

The figures are of the natural size.

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MUS CERVINIPES, Goud. Buff-footed Rat. |

Mus cervinipes, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., 1852.

Tue species of Rat figured on the accompanying Plate, which is rather widely dispersed over the eastern coast of New South Wales, possesses characters which distinguish it from all the known members of the genus inhabiting that country; its short, soft, adpressed, furry coat, destitute of any lengthened hairs along the back and sides of the body, is one of the characters alluded to, the nearly uniform rufous colouring of its upper surface is another, and its slender, hairless, reticulated tail forms a third. The eastern brushes generally from the River Hunter to Moreton Bay are known to be inhabited by it; but how far its range may extend to the northward is as yet unascertained. Among the numerous specimens sent to me by Mr. Strange, several are labelled with the localities in which they were killed,—viz. Stradbrook Island, Moreton Bay, where it is called Corridl by the natives,—Richmond River, where the Aborigines term it Cunduoo, —and the plains bordering the upper parts of the River Brisbane.

The specific name has been suggested by the fawn-like colouring of its broad tarsi and feet.

Head, all the upper surface and flanks sandy brown, the base of the fur being dark slate-grey; tarsi and feet fawn-colour; under surface mottled buffy white and grey, the base of the fur being grey, and the ex- tremity buffy white ; tail purplish flesh-colour.

In some specimens the buffy white hue predominates and becomes conspicuous on the throat and breast.

In the young animal the upper surface is bluish grey and the under surface greyish white.

The figures in the accompanying Plate represent an adult of each sex and three very young individuals, all of the natural size.

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MUS ASSIMILIS, Goud. Allied Rat.

Mus assimilis, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part xxv. p. 241. Moor-deet, Aborigines of King George’s Sound.

Tue Allied Rat is somewhat numerous in New South Wales. The two specimens from which the characters of the species were taken for the Proceedings of the Zoological Society,” above quoted, were procured by the late Mr. Strange on the banks of the Clarence. I have three other specimens collected by Mr. Gilbert at King George’s Sound, which differ only in being about a fifth smaller in all their admeasurements : it is just possible that it will hereafter be found that these latter animals are distinct from the former, but at present I regard them as identical, and if such be the case, the range of the species extends along the whole southern seaboard of the continent from east to west.

The Mus assimihs is about the same size as the Mus decumanus of Europe, and has a very similar aspect ; its hair, however, is more soft and silky, and its incisor teeth very long and narrow.

Face, all the upper surface and sides light brown, very finely pencilled with black; under surface greyish buff; the base of the fur all over the body dark slaty grey ; whiskers black; tail nearly destitute of hairs ; all the feet clothed with very fine silvery-white hairs, giving those organs a very delicate appearance.

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The figures are of the natural size.

MUS MANICATUS, Goud. White-footed Rat. |

Mus manicatus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part xxv. p. 242.

Tur Mus manicatus is a remarkable species of Rat, of nearly the same colour and size, and of a similarly delicate structure, as the well-known Black Rat of the British Islands (dus Rattus), but from which it differs in having the tip of the nose, the front part of the lips, a longitudinal stripe on the breast, and the fore- and hind-feet white, which latter peculiarity suggested the specific appellation of manicatus or gloved.”

The only specimen I have yet seen of this animal was procured at Port Essington, on the north coast of Australia, and was subsequently presented to me by J. B. Turner, Esq.

Head, ears, and all the upper surface black, gradually passing into the deep grey of the under surface ; nose, fore part of the lips, stripe down the centre of the throat and chest, fore- and hind-feet white ; whiskers deep black ; tail denuded of hairs.

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MUS SORDIDUS, Gouwid. Sordid Rat.

Mus sordidus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., part xxv. p. 242. Dil-pea of the Aborigines of New South Wales.

Very fine examples of this robust and compact Rat were procured by the late Mr. Gilbert on the Darling Downs in New South Wales. At present these specimens are in my own collection, but when this work is completed, they will form part of the rich stores of natural history at the British Museum. Mr. Gilbert states that it is common on the plains, and is occasionally found on the banks of creeks, and adds, that it mostly feeds on the roots of stunted shrubs.

The ius sordidus is nearly equal in size to the common Water Vole of England (4rvicola amphibius), but it is rather smaller than the Mus fuscipes of Australia. It is in every respect a true Mus: its incisor teeth, when compared with those of MZ. assimilis, are broad