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QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY.

EDITED BY

OSBERT SALVIN, MA,, F.R.S., B.LS., F:Z,S., &c.

———

VOL Hiy 31873:

THIRD SERIES.

Ibidis auspicio novus incipit Ibidis or

x

LONDON: ye d fx f JOHN VAN VOORST, 1 PATERNOSTER ROW, / oa £ ? Y 1873. fw

Cy

PRINTED RY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.

PREFACE.

Mr. Satyrn’s continued absence in Guatemala renders it necessary for his substitute to write a few lines as preface to the third volume of the Third Series of ‘THE I[sts.’

When the British Ornithologists’ Union was in- stituted at Cambridge in 1858, who would have ventured to prophecy that the Society and its Organ would attain such dimensions and such success ? Yet our Union now comprehends ninety-four Mem- bers, and our Journal has reached its 15th volume. Nor does there seem any reason why our numbers should diminish or our volumes cease to appear. Though some of our original members have (I regret to say) become rather sparing of their contributions to ‘Tuer Isis,’ a new generation of ornithologists is arising who show no symptoms of falling behind their predecessors, either in field-work abroad or in cabinet-work at home. ‘To these, as well as to those of the older generation who have contributed to these pages and otherwise assisted us in our arduous undertaking, our best thanks are hereby offered.

P. L. SCLATER, Acting Editor.

11 Hanover Square, London, W. _ February 16th, 1874.

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BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS’ UNION. 1873.

[An asterisk indicates an Original Member. |

Date of Election.

1870. Anprew Anverson, F.Z.S.; Futtehgurh, North-West Pro- vinces, India. 1872. Hansury Barctay, F.Z.S.; Churchill House, Handsworth, near Birmingham. 1873. W. T. Buanrorp, F.Z.S., F.G.8.; Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. 1870. Sir Vicror Brooxs, Bart.; Colebrooke, Fermanagh, Ireland. 1871. Arraur Basit Brooke; Cardney, Dunkeld, N.B. 1866. Henry Bucxktey, F.Z.8.; Edgbaston, Birmingham. 1868. THomas Epwarp Bucxtey, B.A., F.Z.S.; Westwood House, Beverley. 1872. Watrrr Lawry Buiter, Sc.D., F.L.S., &e.; New Zealand. 1866. ArtHur Wittiam Cricuron, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.8.; Broadward Hall, Salop. 1865. Henry Exrres Dresser, F.Z.S.; The Firs, South Norwood, Surrey. * Henry Maurice Drummonp-Hay, C.M.Z.S., Lieutenant-Colo- nel, Royal Perth Rifles; Seggieden, Perth. 1870. Dantet Grravup Extiot, F.Z.8.; New York. 1866. Henry Joun Etwes, F.Z.S.; Miserden House, Cirencester. *THomas Campsett Eyton, F.Z.S.; Eyton Hall, Salop. 1873. Capt. H. W. Fritpnn, Paymaster, Royal Artillery, Malta. 1867. Gzuorer Gooca Fowter, B.A.; Gunton Hall, Suffolk. 1865. Rev. Henry Extiorr Fox, B.A.; 7 Park Villas. Oxford. 1873. Atrrep Henry Garrop, F.Z.8.; 11 Harley Street, W. *Freperick DuCane Gopman, F.LS., F.Z.S.; 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, W.

vi Date of Election.

*Prrcy Sanpen Gopman, B.A., C.M.Z.8S.; Borregaard, Sarps- borg, Norway. 1871. Roserr Gray; 2 Lawrence Place, Dowan Hill, Glasgow. *Joun Henry Gurney, F.Z.S.; Northrepps, Norfolk. 1870. Joun Henry Gurney, Jun., F.Z.S.; Northrepps, Norfolk. 1873. James Fernerstonnaven Hamitton, F.Z.8.; 27 Elgin Cres- cent, Notting Hill, W. 1868. James Epmunp Harrine, F.LS., F.Z.S.; 24 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, 1873. Joun A. Harviz-Brown; Dunipace House, Falkirk, N.B. *Rey. Wittiam Henry Hawker, M.A., F.Z.8.; Ashford, Petersfield, Sussex. 1868. Rev. Herzert 8. Hawkins, M.A.; Beyton Rectory, Suffolk. 1873. Cuartes B. Honeson, F.Z.S.; 13 Waterloo Street, Bir- mingham. *Witrrm Hupieston Huprxsron, M.A., F.Z.S.; 23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London. 1869. Arran Ocravian Hume, C.B.; Secretary to the Government of India. 1873. Most Hon, Caries, Marquess of Hunrry; 41 Upper Gros~ venor Street, W. 1870. Hon. Hepworth Hytron-Jotumre; Heath House, Peters- field, Sussex. 1870, Major Leonarp Howarp Irsy, Hythe, Southampton. *ArrHur Epwarp Knox, M.A., F.LS., F.Z.8.; Trotton House, Petersfield, Sussex. *Right Hon. Tuomas Lyrrieron, Lord Litrorp, E.LS., F.Z:8., &e.; Lilford Hall, Oundle, Northants. 1870. C. H. T. Marsuatt, F.Z.S.; Captain, Bengal Staff Corps. 1870. G, F. L. Manswatt, F.Z.S,; Royal (Bengal) Engineers. 1864. ALExaANDER Goopman More, F.L.S. &c.; 3 Botanic View, Glasnevin, Dublin. 1872. Francis D’Arcy Wittr1am Croven Newcome ; Feltwell Hall, Norfolk. *Arrrep Newron, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. ; Professor of Zoology in the University of Cambridge. *Epwarp Newton, M.A., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S8., Colonial Secretary, Mauritius. 1871. Reeryatp Carew Pore, Lieutenant, Royal Navy; Yovilton, Ilchester.

vil Date of Election.

*Joun Wirtram Pow rett-Orpr, F.Z.8., late Captain, 42nd (Royal Highland) Regiment ; Auchnaba House, Loch Gilp Head, N. B. 1872. R. G. Warpiaw Ramsay, 67th Regiment ; White Hill, Lass- wade. 1868. E. J. Ruopes ; Exchequer and Audit Department, Somerset House. 1865. Grorer Dawson Rowtey, M.A., F.Z.S.; Chichester House, Brighton. 1873. Major O. R. C. St. Joun, R.A., F.Z.S.; 49 Victoria Road, W. *OsBERT Satvin, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S8., &c.; 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, W. 1870. Howarp Saunpers, F.Z.S.; 7 Radnor Place, Hyde Park, London. *Puitip Lutiey Scrater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c.; 44 Elvas- ton Place, Queen’s Gate, London, W. 1873. Henry Srrsoun; Oak Lea, Collegiate Crescent, Broomhall Park, Sheffield. 1871. Ricuarp Bowpter Saree, F.L.S., F.Z.8.;. British Museum. 1870. G. Ernest Suetrey, F.Z.S8., late Captain, Scots Fusilier Guards; Avington, Winchester. 1865. Rev. Cuartes Witi1am SuepHerD, M.A., F.Z.S.; Trotters- cliffe, Kent. 1864. Rev. ALrrep Cnartes Suita, M.A.; Yatesbury Rectory, Wilts. 1867. Rowxzanp M. Sprertine, F.Z.8., Commander, Royal Navy. 1864. Henry Srevenson, F.L.S.; Unthank’s Road, Norwich. 1868. Hamon Styreman Le Srraner, F.Z.S.; Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk. *Kpwarp Cavenpisu Taytor, M.A., F.Z.8.; 74 Jermyn Street, 8.W., London. 1864. Grorce Cavenpish Taytor, F.Z.8.; 42 Elvaston Place, Queen’s Gate, S.W. 1873, Wiit1amM Bernuarp Treermerer, F.Z.S.; Finchley, N. *Rev. Henry Baxer Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., &e., Hon. Canon of Durham, Greatham Vicarage, West Hartlepool, Durham. 1864, Henry Morris Urcuer, F.Z.8.; Sherringham Hall, Norfolk. 1872. Hersert Taytor Ussuer, C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor of Tobago. 1864. Right Hon, Arraur Viscount Waxpey, F.R.S., F.LS., Pres. Z.S.; Walden Cottage, Chislehurst, Kent.

Date of

Election.

1871.

1860. 1860,

1860.

1860. 1860.

1870. 1860. 1860.

1869.

1860.

1862.

1872. 1872. 1873. 1872.

1872. 1872. 1872.

1872. 1872. 1872, 1872. 1872. 1872. 1872. 1872. 1872.

Vili

KE. Percrvat Wricut, M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.8., Professor of Botany in the University of Dublin.

Extra-Ordinary Members. Epwarp Bryru, Hon. Memb. As. Soc. Aurrep Russe, Watzace, F.Z.8.; The Dell, Grays, Essex.

Honorary Members.

Professor Spencer F. Barrp, Assistant Secretary to the Smith- sonian Institution, Washington.

Doctor Envarp Batpamus, Moritzwinger, No. 7, Halle a. S.

Doctor Jean Casanis, Erster Custos am kéniglichen Museum der Friedrich-Wilhelm’s Universitat zu Berlin.

Doctor Orro Finscu, Zoological Museum, Bremen.

Doctor Gustav Harrnavus, Bremen.

Epear Leopotp Layarp, F.Z.S., H.B.M. Consul in the Feejee Islands.

Aveust von Prtzetn, Custos am k.-k. zoologischen Cabinete in Wren.

Professor J. Reryuarpt, Kongelige Naturhistoriske Museum 1 Kjobenhavn.

Rosert Swinnor, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., H. M. Consul at Chefoo,

China. Foreign Members.

Prof. J. v. Barsosa pu Bocagr, Royal Museum, Lisbon.

Prof. J. F. Branpr, Imperial Museum, St. Petersburg.

Rosert Cotterr; Christiania.

Doctor Exxiorr Coves, U.S. Army, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Atpnonsr Mitnr-Epwarps, Jardin des Plantes, Paris.

Doctor Vicror Fario, Geneva.

Prof. Henry Hittyer Gierrior1, Royal Superior Institute, Florence.

Doctor Turopor yon Hevetr, Stuttgart.

GroreEe N. Lawrence, New York.

Baron Dz Szetys Lonecuamrs, Liege.

Doctor A. J. Matmeren, Helsingfors.

Doctor A. von Mippenporrr, Dorpat.

Prof. Gustav Rappg, T%flis.

Count Tommaso Sarvaportr, Royal Museum, Z'urin.

Prof. Herman Scutecet, University Museum, Leyden.

Prof, Cary Joann SunpEvALL, Stockholm.

CONTENTS or VOL. III.—THIRD SERIES.

(1873.)

Number IX., January.

~—~“T. Notes on the Zrochilide. The Genus Phaethornis. By

Ospert Satvin, M.A. &., and D. G. Exxior, F.L.S., F.Z.8., &c.

II. On the Birds in the Imperial Collection at Vienna ob- tained from the Leverian Museum. By A. von Pxtzexy. (Plate I.)

III. Notes from Archangel. By Epwarp R. Atston, F.Z.S., and Joun A. Harviz Brown RN aR UAL, 5 ates

IV. On a new Species of Little Bittern from China. By Ropert Swinnoek, F.Z.8S. &e. (Plate I.) See

V. On the Nidification of certain Indian Birds. Part II. By Anprew AnvErson, F.Z.S.

VI. Addenda to the Avifauna of India. By Epwarp Bryvu, F.Z.S., Hon. Memb. As. Soc. Beng. ert

VII. Fragmentary Notes on the Guacharo or Oil-bird (Stea- tornis caripensis). By Dr. James Moris, F.L.S. &e.. :

VIII. Notes on a supposed new ee of Prion. By Tuomas H. Ports, F.L.S. ee Sete 53 ty siyiiries nen ae

IX. Descriptions of new Species of Nectarinia, Sitta, and Parus from Persia and Baluchistan. By Wittram T. Bran- ForD, C.M.Z.S. .

X. Description of a new Species of Cormorant from the Chat- ham Islands. By Water L. Buiter, Sc.D., F.L.S., &e.

Page

14

54

74

79

81

85

90

x CONTENTS.

: Page

XI. Notices of some recently published Ornithological Books

XII. Letters, Announcements, &c. :—

Letters from Mr. Swinhoe, Major Irby, Lord Lilford, Mr. Gurney, and Captain Hutton: References to Cyanocephalus wiedi, Bp., and Bonaparte’s ‘Conspectus Ptilopterorum Syste- maticus ;” Notice of Prof. Brandt's Memoir on the Alcide .

Noumper X., April.

XIII. On the Birds in the Imperial Collection at Vienna ob- tained from the Leverian Museum. By A. von Prnzetn. Part 12...

XIV. On a new Species of Barbet from Western India. By Capt. J. Hayzs Luoyp. Uae red MOOS a ah

XV. Note on the Pyranga roseogularis of Cabot. By P. L. perarer, MA...Ph.D., RS... (PlatediL) 2 « :

XVI. On a new Chinese Owl of the Genus Ketupa. By R. SwinHor, H.M. Consul at Ningpo . ao psa et Rees

XVII. Ornithological Notes from the Argentine Republic. By Wr11am Brackstone Lup, B.A. oy awtsicai ie

XVIII. Descriptions of six new Species of West-African

Birds. By Captain G. E. Saertey “ion enact eet XIX. Notes on the Ornithology of Sardinia. By A. B.

Brooke, F.Z.S. . BA Sacre WeDo: daze ge eee me XX. On the Genus Platystira and its Allies. By R. Bowpier

Suarpe, F.L.S., F.Z.8., Senior Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum. (Plate IV.) . : cane

XXI. On an apparently new Species of Hornbill from Angola. By D..G.. Evtior, F-0.8., B:Z:8., &¢... Len tcaiie

XXIT. Note on Homochlamys luscinia, Salvad. By T. Sat- vaporI, U.M.Z.8. : ee we i eee

XXIII. On the Upuprde and their Relationships. By Dr. James Mouriz, F.L.S. &. (Plates V., VL, VII.) .

91

127 . 129 . 138

. 143

CONTENTS. xi

Page XXIV. Notes on ‘Stray Feathers.’ By W. T. Buanrorp, BGS CEM S eet )0 11!) aL Bete oso

XXY. Descriptions of a new Jay and a new Woodpecker from Persia. By W. T. Buanrorp, F.G.S.,C.M.Z.8.. . . . 225

XXVI. Letters, Announcements, &c. :—

Letters from Mr. Swinhoe, Mr. J. H. Gurney, and Mr. Howard Saunders. Announcement of the Editor’s Departure for Gua- (RETO? IGG MPN Ree MeN ne Natit de ae R's un et eats

Noumser X1., July. XXVII. Notes on the pease of Sardinia. By A. B.

ROO KA VE ZS s co Tas, oa et ha EN ; fahame ey aac anes 5 XXVIII. On the Rosy Ibis of China and Japan (Jdis ge ee By Rozsert Swinnor, H.M. Consul at Ningpo . . . . . 249

XXIX. A Tenth additional List of Birds from Natal. By eebecGromnmars, BZ: 2, al teeta Mal one lee a ae ae Oe

XXX. On rare or little-known Limicole. By James Epmunp Hapring, FoL.S. E4.8. (Plates Vil; and EX)... 5. 4-260

XXXI. Notes on the Trochilide. The Genera Pygmornis, Glaucis, and Threnetes. By Osserr Satvin, M.A. &e., and D. Geen nOty Hol S:. EL0i, Cr .o5 eS eds len ents eS 9269

XXXII. On two Species of Trochilide of the Genus Lo- phornis. By Ossert Sarvin, M.A. &e., and D. G. Exxioz, 2 oI LES My fo ZAI ERR Cae 5 arias Oa, Ae 7

XXXITI. Additional List of and Notes on Birds obtained in the Republic of Trans-Vaal. By Tuomas Ayres. (Commu- micated by, Joun: Henry GURNEY.) *.¢<).44 «fysl en sae 4 E1280

XXXIV. Remarks on wircc pucherani and its Allies. By Grorce N. Lawrence... china ate: ONALinx ad te el ares

XXXY. Note on the Fulica alba of White. By Osserr HaEVIN, MAW Gen! (Blate:X.)ioot sak ayoui.paas hk! & vey @oa

xii CONTENTS.

Page XXXVI. On a Collection of Birds recently made by Lieut. Rosert Warpiaw Ramsay, F.Z.S., in the Andaman Islands. By Axrruur, Viscount Waxpey, P.Z.S., F.R.S. (Plates XL, PROD OKT) 20 oe alse | on ca ae ule ae ne prec

XXXVII. Notices of ee Be ares and forthcoming Ornithological Works. . . 5 AR. eae eee

XXXVIII. Letters, Announcements, &c. :—

Letters from Mr. J. H. Gurney, Mr. J. E. Harting, Mr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, Mr. D. G. Elliot, Mr. E. L. Layard, Mr. Robert Gray; Extracts from a letter received from Mr. Salvin . . . 324

Numser XII1., October.

XXXIX. Notes on the Ornithology of Sardinia. By A. B. Rooker ese viet: Jet tc. vale ore ee, A eee

XL. On Rallus modestus of New Zealand. i hat Boa HUET ONG s sorutgts at vat 6 eo ik teu, <1 os Ue eas sa ie, eee

XLI. Notes on the Zrochilide. The Genus Thalurania. By Ossert Satvin, M.A., F.R.S., &., and D. G. Extior, F.L.S., eee Cas iy. Ge ces) sale ae, tat elas SBN Wie cf: mys vooe

XLII. Notes on Chinese Ornithology. By Roserr Swinnoez, BUS cho Aye bb. Soe: calc, Mead oy Oh ee TR eee

XLIII. Additions to the List of Birds of goers By P. 1, Senaren, Mt Ae tb. EEC. . teal rare ae «| aerate

XLIV. Notes on Birds observed at Para. By E. L. Layarp, Esq., H.B.M. Consul.—With Descriptions of two new Species. By PR. L. Sctarer. (Plates XTV. and XYV.).....«)5 2 syed

XLY. On the Birds of the Province of Kattiawar in Western India. By J. Hayrs Lioyp, Capt. Bombay Staff Corps . . . 397

CONTENTS. Xiil

Page XLVI. Letters, Announcements, &c. :— Letters from Mr. J. H. Gurney, Mr. R. Swinhoe, and Capt. F. W. Hutton ; Extracts from letters received from Mr. Salvin ; New Publications received; Recent discoveries in Fossil Or- BEMEMOLORY. is. isn, Ts. 3 ( 3) RO ee, ee See ite al

SuppLeMENT, 1873.

XIVII. Index to the Ornithological Literature of 1872. By P. L. Scuarer, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and O. Frnscu, Ph.D.. . 431

XLVIII. List of Periodicals in which Ornithological Papers have appeared in 1872. By F. H. Warernovusr, Librarian to the Zoological Society of London . . . . . ... . . 493

Index . A RT oN, SON toe mete oh TRO, PNR 7 00

PLATES IN VOL. III.

THIRD SERIES.

I. Trichoglossus pygmeeus II. Ardetta eurhythma . III. Pyranga roseigularis IV. ae 1. Diaphorophya HieeeHil Fig. 2, 3. Platystira peltata VY. Upupa epops and U. minor

VI. Irrisor erythrorhynchus and I. pencoalones ;

VII. Rhinopomastus, Promerops, &e. . VIII. Agialitis varius . Fay seer IX. Agialitis sancte-helene X. Notornis alba. : XI. Centrococcyx maihen iene - XII ace 1. Kittacincla albiventris Fig. 2. Sturnia andamanensis XIII. Ianthoenas columboides XIV. Picolaptes layardi XV. Thamnophilus simplex

tS i ied Cae oi

THE Tes

No. IX. JANUARY 1873.

_I.—WNotes on the Trochilide. The Genus Phaethornis. By Ossert Satvin, M.A. &c., and D. G. Extiot, F.L.S., F.Z.8S., &c. «

Arter careful examination of the birds composing the genus Phaethornis, we find that there are fourteen species that can be fairly characterized ; and, judging from the ample materials at our service, we consider that only those enumerated in the following list can maintain any claim to specific distinction. The genus appears to be divisible into four sections or groups, each possessing sufficiently conspicuous characters, whereby it may be easily determined to which section any species of the genus should be referred. The four sections are as follows :—

A. Species with curved bills, greyish or rufescent beneath, the central tail-feathers far exceeding the rest in length.

B. Species with curved bills, grey or rufescent beneath, the rectrices next to the median very long. C. Species with curved bills, dark grey or iridescent green beneath ; adult males with the extremity of the median rectrices reduced to a point. D. Species with nearly straight bills. SER. LE VOL. LiL. B

2 Messrs. Salvin and Elhot on the Trochilide.

Division A. (Phaethornis, Sw.)

a. Species with median gular stripe. a' Buff beneath.

Rump narrowly edged with fulvous.... 1. P. superciliosus. Rump broadly edged with fulvous .... 2. P. longirostris. b' Grey beneath. Rump banded with grey.............. 3. P. hispidus. ce’ Rufescent beneath. Upper tail-coverts clear rufous ........ 4. P. syrmatophorus.

b. Species with scale-like markings on the throat. d' Rufescent beneath.

LATE G.... fills SOREN. SEE BE Shey: 5. P. eurynome. Malls... sak eeaceeangnUeened es core te 6. P. squaldus. é Whitishs beneath iinet. sei bie cele wise ee 7. P. anthophilus.

Greyish white beneath .............. ie: apis 8. PB. august. utescomt DONeathy v6... ccc siniso eehera ee tee oieuan 9. P. pretrit.

Division C. (Toxoteuches, Cab. & Hein.)

iBasovorroctrices ‘black... .0i e400 wee cos stele 10. P. yaruqua. Rump and base of rectrices green .............. Ll. BP. geuye Rump and base of rectrices bluish green ........ 12. P. emilie.

Division D. (Ametrornis, Reich.) Brae MOUE IDEM OMG 2% ro cep oho rmeteaue-aegausad emote te 15. P. bourcierc. Hosp Mutos HENEALN 8S. en ce eo vec bn ptee 14. P. philippit.

Before proceeding to the details referrmg to the above species, we will attempt to show the amount of individual variation to which these birds are subject. As regards the bills, measuring from the posterior end of the nostril to the tip, along the chord, we find that, in Panama specimens of P. longirostris, one is 1°62 long, while another is only 1°45, showing a difference of ‘17 of an inch, others, again, being intermediate. Cayenne specimens of P. superciliosus vary in the length of their bills from 1°78 to 1°46, with interme- diate gradations. Rio-Janeiro specimens of P. squalidus vary from 1:02 to ‘90. Instances of similar variation are to be found in all the species, as regards their bills. The wing also varies in length, and we find that, m Panama specimens of P. longirostris, one is 2°1 in length, from carpal joint to tip,

Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide. 3

another 1°88, while others are intermediate. Cayenne examples of P. superciliosus have the wing from the carpal joint vary- ing from 2°20 to 1°80. In the coloration of the tips of the tail-feathers, the specimens of P. longirostris before us vary from rich buff to nearly pure white, and the same is the case with the examples of P. superciliosus ; and as regards the shape of the rectrices, it would appear, in this group at least, that the younger the bird the more pointed are the lateral ones. As regards the group to which P. guyi belongs, the white tips of the lateral tail-feathers disappear with age, and in the adult of P. yaruqui these feathers become of a uniform black.

The geographical distribution of this genus appears to be well and plainly marked, and extends from the southern con- fines of Brazil to the northern limit of the neotropical region, to the exclusion of the West Indies. Its members are inha- bitants of the depths of the warm tropical forests, being never found in the open country nor in elevated districts. In Brazil, as restricted, to the exclusion of the Amazonian valley, we find three, perhaps four species, viz. P. eurynome and P. squalidus, both of which are common in the southern provinces; in the Province of Bahia and parts of Minas Geraes P. pretrii is found; the fourth species is P. philippii, which may occur in the far interior on the confines of Bolivia. In the great valley of the Amazon we find but three species, viz. the widely ranging P. superciliosus, P.hispidus, and P. bourcieri, the latter being met with in the upper portion. In Guiana itself P. super- ciliosus alone is found. Passing to Ecuador we obtain P. syr- matophorus, which is probably restricted to the western slope of the Andes, and P. yaruqui; while on the Pacific coast P. longirostris appears at the southern extremity of its range. We now come to Columbia; and here we find two species oc- curring in the vicinity of Bogota, viz. P. anthophilus and P. emilie ; in the valley of the Magdalena P. longirostris and P. augusti also occur. In Trinidad and Venezuela P. guyi is the prevalent form, while the latter is the headquarters of P. augusti. Costa Rica and Veragua possess P. emilie, which is not shared by the rest of Central America, wherein P. lon- girostris is found universally distributed.

B 2

4 Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide.

1. PHAETHORNIS SUPERCILIOSUS.

Trochilus superciliosus, Linn. Syst. Nat. (1766) tom. 1. p- 189; Vierll. Enc. Méth. Orn. 11. p. 549, sp. 5; Less. Hist. Nat. des Col. p. 35, pl. 6; Traité d’Orn. p. 288.

Phaethornis superciliosus, Swains. Class. Birds, vol.i1. p.330; Gray, Gen. Birds, vol.i.p. 104; Gould, Mon. Troch. vol.i. pl. xvi.

Phaethornis malaris, Nordm. Erm. Reis. Atl. p. 2 (1835) ; Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. 1. p. 104, sp. 2; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. tom. i. p. 67, sp.2; Cab. & Hein. Mus. Hem. Theil. im. p- 9; Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 41, sp. 17 (8vo ed.).

Phaethornis moorei, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Lyc. Nat. Hist. vi. p. 258 (1858).

Phaethornis consobrinus, Boure.,’ Reich. Aufz. Colibr. p. 17; cf. J. f. Orn. 1853 ; Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 42.

Phaethornis fraterculus, Gould, Mon. Troch. vol. 1. pl. xvii.

Colibri a longue queue de Cayenne, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 687 ; Buff. Pl. Enl. 600. 3.

Brin blanc, male, Vieill. Ois. Dor. tom. 1. p. 37, pl. 17.

Hab. Guiana; Para (Mus. J. Gould) ; Pebas (Hauxwell) ; Ecuador (Buckley) ; Columbia (Bourcier).

This bird was originally described by Brisson from specimens sent to M. Réaumur by Mons. Atur, from Cayenne; and upon this description Linneus founded his Trochilus super- ciliosus. In 1835, Nordmann, in Erman’s Reise um die Erde,’ p. 2, bestowed another name upon the species, that of T. malaris, quoting Linnzeus’s name as a synonym. But the latter must of necessity take precedence, and that of Nord- mann become a synonym. In 1858 Mr. Lawrence described (J. c.) the Ecuadorian bird as Phaethornis moorei. This form is known to us from the fact of the type having been sent to Mr. Gould, and, on comparison, proved to be the same as the bird which we have been in the habit of receiving from the Upper Amazon and Ecuador, and which we now unite with P. superciliosus. The P. moorei of Lawrence has been placed by Mr. Gould, in his Introduction to the Trochilide,’ as a synonym of a species he calls P. consobrinus of Bourcier. This species has never been characterized, and the name only exists from the fact that Reichenbach, in his Aufzahlung der Colibris,

Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilidie. 5

placed it as a synonym of P. malaris, which is itself a synonym of P. superciliosus. Mr. Gould, in the first volume of the ‘Tro- chilide,’ described a bird from Cayenne and the neighbouring countries as P. fraterculus, stating that its differences from P. super ciliosus consist in its smaller size and its somewhat more curved bill. We trace this small bird into New Granada and the Upper Amazon, from specimens before us ; and we cannot separate it from P. superciliosus, the differences being such as belong to individuals and sex, rather than such as can be deemed specific. In 1860 Cabanis and Heine made some radical changes in the synonymy of this and one other species of this genus. They associated P. pretrit of Lesson and De Lattre, which is the Trochilus superciliosus of Price Maximilian, with the true 7. superciliosus of Linnzeus, giving Brazil as its ha- bitat ; but we can discover no authority for saying that the Linnean bird has ever been found there. For the Cayenne bird, which is the true superciliosus of Linnzeus, they use the name malaris of Nordmann. These conclusions Mr. Gould unfortunately adopted in his Introduction to the Trochihde,’ the synonymy having been previously almost correctly given in the text accompanying his plates.

We notice, on comparing Cayenne with Upper Amazon and Ecuadorian specimens, that many of the former have dark- coloured throats, but on the other hand some have the ordi- nary pale-coloured gular stripe. This would seem to show that this character cannot be relied upon as specific.

We have examined the following specimens :—

Cayenne: two, Mus. P.L.8.; one, Mus. D.G. EH. (ex Deyrolle).

Para: three, Mus. J. Gould.

Pebas: one (Hauawell), Mus. D.G.E.; two (td.), Mus. 8.&G.

Peruvian Amazon: one (Bartlett), Mus. D. G. E.

Ecuador: one (e# J. Gould), Mus. D.G. E. Canelos: one (Buckley), Mus. 8. &. G.

Columbia: one, Mus. P. L.S.; two (Bourcier), Mus. D.G. E.

+-2. PHAETHORNIS LONGIROSTRIS. Ornismya longirostris, Less. et De Lattre, Echo du Monde Savant, 1843, no. 45. p. 1070, June 15th.

6 Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide.

Trochilus cephalus, Boure. et Muls. Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 269.

Phaethornis cassini, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Lyc. Nat. Hist. vin. p. 347. |

Phaethornis cephalus, Gould, Mon. Troch. pl. 19.

Phaethornis longirostris, Cab. & Heim. Mus. Hein. Th. iii. p- 9; Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 42.

Phaethornis boliviana, Gould, Intr. Mon. Troch. p. 42.

Hab. The whole of Central America from Southern Mexico to the lower portion of the valley of the Magdalena and Western Ecuador.

Lesson and De Lattre first described this species in the Echo du Monde Savant’ from a specimen obtained in Vera Paz. In the Revue Zoologique’ for 1848, Bourcier and Mulsant rede- scribed the species from Central-American specimens collected by Sallé, under the name of Phaethornis cephalus. This has long been acknowledged to be a synonym of longirostris. Inthe ‘Annals’ of the New York Lyceum of Natural History for 1866, vill. 347, Mr. Lawrence described a specimen from Cartagena, collected by Mr. Schott, who was attached to the Atrato ex- pedition under Lieut. Michler, as P. cassini. This type has been examined by Mr. Gould, who pronounces it to belong to P. longirostris, thus adding another to the synonyms appertain- ing to this species.

Through Mr. Gould’s kindness, we have had an opportunity of carefully comparing the type specimen of his P. boliviana, described in the Introduction to Trochilide,’ with the large series of P. longirostris now before us. The specimen in ques- tion is immature, and we cannot separate it from examples of the present species from Santa Marta and Costa Rica. We cannot but suppose that Mr. Gould is im error in giving Bo- livia as the habitat of this species. A second, similar speci- men in Mr. Gould’s collection, but of a more adult bird, and said to be from Brazil, we refer also to P. longirostris. In associating his P. boliviana with P. syrmatophorus, we think Mr. Gould to be clearly wrong, the bright rufous upper tail- coverts of that species being sufficient to separate it at a glance. The differences between P. superciliosus and P. longirostris are not very decided and; we are even in doubt whether speci-

Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide. 7

mens of the two can always be discriminated. As an almost invariable rule the fulvous markings of the lower back and rump are much clearer in longirostris than in superciliosus ; nor do we see in the Central-American bird any tendency to assume the dark-coloured throat so prevalent, but not uni- versal, in the Cayenne bird. The specimens from which our conclusions have been made come from the following lo- calities :—

Mexico: one (Sallé), Mus. D. G. E.

Vera Paz, Guatemala: four, Mus. D.G. E. Choctun, Vera Paz: three (Salv. & Godm.), Mus.8.&G. Vera Paz: one (Salv.), Mus. P. L.S.

Chontales, Nicaragua: two (Belt), Mus. 8. &G.

Costa Rica: two (Carmiol & Endres), Mus. 8. & G.

Bugaba, Chiriqui: one (drcé), Mus. 8. & G.

Lion-Hill Station, Isth. Panama: four (McLeannan), Mus. S. & G.; one (#d.), Mus. P. LS.

Santa Martha: one (Bourcier), Mus. D. G. E.

Barranquilla: one (Rippon), Mus. P. L.S.

Esmeraldas: one (Fraser), Mus. P. L.S.

Bolivia? one, Mus. J. Gould (type of P. boliviana).

Brazil? one (Campbell), Mus. J. Gould.

3. PHAETHORNIS HISPIDUS.

Trochilus hispidus, Gould, P. Z.S. 1846, p. 90.

Phaethornis hispidus, Gray & Mitch. Gen. Birds, 1. p. 104, sp. 14; Gould, Mon. Troch. 1. pl. 22.

Trochilus oseryi, Boure. & Muls. Ann. des Scien. Lyon, iv. 1852, p. 139.

Phaethornis oseryi, Gould, Mon. Troch. pl. 23.

Phaethornis villosus, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Lye. vi. p. 259.

Hab. Bolivia? (Bridges); Rio Pastaza (Bourcier) ; Pebas (Hauxwell) ; Upper Ucayali (Bartlet?) ; Archidona, Ecuador (Jameson) ; New Granada (fide Gould).

This species was first described by Mr. Gould from a speci- men brought home by the late Mr. Bridges, and stated to have been obtained in Peru or Bolivia. Six years afterwards M. Bourcier described a specimen from the banks of the Rio

8 Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide.

Pastaza as 7. oseryi, comparing it with P. anthophilus and P. philippii. This species has generally been recognized as distinct from Mr. Gould’s P. hispidus ; but on comparing the type of that species with several specimens from the Upper Amazon, we do not find sufficient differences to separate them. Mr. Gould’s figures of both, in his monograph, show a distinct arrangement of markings on the throat; but we do not per- ceive this to be the case, as all the specimens before us agree in the coloration of this part, even Mr. Gould’s type having a white line down the centre of the throat, although the fea- thers are so disarranged that at first sight it appears to want this character. The only difference appreciable is that the type of hispidus has a somewhat longer bill, and a very little longer wing; but as the length of bill in this species is well understood to be of no specific value, we do not deem it in this case worthy of consideration. The general coloration of all the specimens is identically the same. Mr. Lawrence, overlooking M. Bourcier’s description of P. oseryi, and misled by Mr. Gould’s plate, redescribed this species as P. villosus. We have examined the following examples :—

Pebas, Peru: two (Haurwell), Mus. 8.&G.; one (Hauzx- well), Mus. D.G. E.; one (2d.), Mus. P. L.S.

Peru or Bolivia: one (Bridges), Mus. J. Gould (type of species).

4, PHAETHORNIS SYRMATOPHORUS.

Phaethornis syrmatophorus, Gould, Contr. Ornith. 1851, p- 189; id. Mon. Troch. pl. 20.

Hab. Environs of Quito (Jameson) ; Pallatanga (Fraser).

This is a very distinct and well-marked species, and has its nearest ally in P. pretriz.

The following are our specimens :—

Ecuador: one (ev Gould), one (Buckley), Mus. 8. & G.; one (ex Gould), one (Buckley), Mus. D. G. E.-

Pallatanga: one, (Fraser) Mus. P. L.8.

5. PHABTHORNIS EURYNOME. Trochilus eurynome, Less. Troch. p. 91, t. 31. Phaethornis eurynome, Gray & Mitch. Gen. Birds, i.

Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilidee. 9

p- 104, sp. 5; Gould, Mon. Troch. 1. pl. 16; Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 27.

Hab. Brazil, Mattodentro, Ypanema (Nait.).

This very well-known species is found in almost every col- lection coming from Rio Janeiro, but, so far as we are aware, from none of the more northern provinces.

Rio Janeiro: two (Youds), Mus. S.&G.; three, Mus. DeG. EB.

Brazil: two, Mus. S.&G.; one, Mus. P. L. 8S.

6. PHAETHORNIS SQUALIDUS.

Trochilus squalidus, Temm. Pl. Col. 120. fig. 1 (1823), ex Natt. MS.

Phaethornis squalidus, Cab. & Hein. Mus. Hein. Th. iii. p. 8.

Phaethornis intermedius, Gould (nec Less.), Mon. Troch. pl. 30.

Phaethornis squalidus, Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 45 ; Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 27.

Trochilus leucophrys, Nordm. Erm. Reise, p. 2 (1835).

Hab. South-east Brazil.

This species has been figured by Mr. Gould as the P. inter- medius of Lesson ; but in his ‘Introduction’ he has changed the name correctly to that of sgualidus of Temminck. With the former species, whatever it may be, the present has nothing to do; under the latter name it is sufficiently well figured by Temminck, who described it in the Planches Coloriées.’ It is an abundant and easily recognizable species, and is sent in quantities in collections from Rio Janeiro. Natterer pro- cured many specimens in the southern and interior portions of Brazil.

Our specimens are the following :— j

Rio Janeiro: two, Mus. 8.&G.; two, Mus. D.G.E; one, Mus. P.L.S.

Santa Fé, Minas Geraes: one (Rogers), Mus. 8. & G.

7. PHAETHORNIS ANTHOPHILUS. Trochilus anthophilus, Bourc. Rev. Zool. 1843, p.71; Boure. & Muls. Ann. des Sci. Lyon, 1843, p. 47.

10 Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide.

Phaethornis anthophilus, Gray & Mitch. Gen. Birds, i. p. 104, sp. 15; Gould, Mon. Troch. 1. pl. 24; Uricoechia, Contr. a las Cienc. 1861, p. 7.

Hab. Upper part of the valley of the Magdalena, temperate region (Bourcier) ; Tibacuy (Uricoechia) ; Venezuela (Goering) .

Bourcier, in the Revue Zoologique’ for 1843, described this bird from specimens in his own collection, giving as the habitat the temperate region of the upper valley of the Mag- dalena. This article appears to have been reproduced in the ‘Annals’ of the Society of Lyons under the authorship of MM. Bourcier and Mulsant, in which the precise habitat given above is omitted. Mr. Gould seems to have consulted the latter journal only, inasmuch as he states that M. Bour- cier was unaware of the locality from which his specimen came, and he (Mr. Gould) assigns it correctly to Columbia, though not for the first time. The extension of its range into Venezuela is based upon a single specimen sent direct from that country by Mr. A. Goering (P. Z.S. 1868, p. 628). The only other authority for the range of this species being greater than that already given depends on the fact that Pelzeln, in the Ornith. Brasil. p. 27, records one specimen from Engenho do Gama, collected by Natterer. It is just possible that this specimen may have been wrongly identified.

We have examined the following specimens :—

Venezuela: one (Goering), Mus. 8. & G.

New Granada: three, Mus. D.G. E.; one (ew Gould), Mus. Pe. 5:

Bogota: two, Mus. 8.&G.; one, Mus. P. L.S.

Barranquilla : one (Rippon), Mus. P. L.S.

8. PHAETHORNIS AUGUSTI.

Trochilus augusti, Bourc. Ann. des Scien. Phys. &c. de Lyon, . p. 623 (1847).

Phaethornis augusti, Gould, Mon. Troch. 1. pl. 29; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376.

Hab.Caraccas, Venezuela (Sallé) ; Ocaiia, Columbia (Wyatt).

The position of this species is rightly indicated by M. Bourcier as being next to P. pretrii, of Brazil. Besides the

—_-

Messrs. Salvin and Elliot on the Trochilide. ll

country from which the type came, it has also been obtained by Mr. Wyatt at Ocaiia, in the valley of the Magdalena. The following specimens have been examined :— Venezuela: one (Sallé), one (Bourcier), one (Bouvier), Mus. D.G.E.; one (Sallé), Mus. 8. & G.

9. PHAETHORNIS PRETRII.

Trochilus pretrii, Less. et De Latt. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 20.

Phaethornis pretru, Gray & Mitch. Gen. Birds, i. p. 104, t. 85. sp. 16; Gould, Mon. Troch. 1. pl. 28.

Trochilus superciliosus, Max. Beitr. iv. p. 116 (1882).

Phaethornis superciliosus, Cab. & Hein. Mus. Hein. Th. iii. p. 9 (1860) ; Gould, Introd. Troch. p. 45.

Hab. Minas Geraes (Rogers) ; Bahia (Pr. Max. ; Wucherer).

This species was first fully described by Prince Max., under the name of P. superciliosus, he having mistaken it for the species described by Linnzeus under that name. In 1839 Lesson and De Lattre redescribed it in the Revue Zoolo- gique’ as P. pretrii, which name will of course be the one for it to bear. The types of these last-named authors were pro- cured from the Brazilian province of Minas Geraes. Cabanis and Heme in their ‘Museum Hemeanum,’ for reasons we cannot appreciate,